HTML Entities


HTML entities provide us with a powerful set of codes to use for symbols which are not on the keyboard.

The sign of square root, the sign of integration and many more like that.
The following table give some of the important ones.

Character Number Name Description
∏ ∏ prod
∑ ∑ sum
√ √ square root
∝ ∝ proportional to
∞ ∞ infinity
∠ ∠ angle
∴ ∴ therefore
≠ ≠ not equal
≡ ≡ equivalent
Α Α Α Alpha
Β Β Β Beta
Γ Γ Γ Gamma
Δ Δ Δ Delta
Ε Ε Ε Epsilon
Η Η Η Eta
Θ Θ Θ Theta
Λ Λ Λ Lambda
Μ Μ Μ Mu
Π Π Π Pi
Ρ Ρ Ρ Rho
Σ Σ Σ Sigma
Τ Τ Τ Tau
Υ Υ Υ Upsilon
Φ Φ Φ Phi
Χ Χ Χ Chi
Ψ Ψ Ψ Psi
Ω Ω Ω Omega
‾ ‾ overline
€ € euro


Thanks to the availability of entities, we can create symbols for the following relationships:

* Mean = ∑X/∑f
* Resistance of an electric bulb = 278Ω
* Inflation ∝ Oil Price
* Area of a circle = πr2
* E = mc2
* Carbon Dioxide = CO2
* Water = H2O

Hexadecimal Numbers

In normal numbers which we deal with regularly, the base is 10.
5 = 5x100
23 = 2x101 + 3x100
123 = 1x102 + 2x101 + 3x100
3123 = 3x103 + 1x102 + 2x101 + 3x100

In Hexadecimal numbers, the base is 16. Therefore, we have to use the digits 1 - 9 and letters A - F as well to represent the numbers.
30(Dec) => 30/16 => 1R14 => 1E(Hex)
40(Dec) => 40/16 => 2R8 => 28(Hex)
50(Dec) => 50/16 => 3R2 => 32(Hex)
500(Dec) => 90/16 => 5R10 => 5A(Hex)

Web Colour Code

Using Hexadecimal numbers, 16-million colours can be made on web pages. We use two Hexadecimal numbers for each primary colour.


|~~|~~|~~| = |Red|Green|Blue|
#FF0000 = Red
#00FF00 = Green
#0000FF = Blue
#FFFF00 = Yellow
#FFFACD = Lemonchiffon


HTML5 Colour Maker

Choose a number between 0 - 255 for the three primary colours, and then mix them to produce the colour of your choice; 255 x 255 x 255 = 16,000000!

Watch this space


Meta Tags

Meta tags are used to describe the web page, include the key words and other information about the data in the page; the contents of meta data are not displayed on a web page. Meta tags are in the head section.

<meta name="description" content="The Book of HTML5" />
<meta name="keywords" content="HTML,CSS,XML,HTML5" />
<meta name="author" content="Vivax Solutions" />
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=UTF-8" />

HTML5 Image Maps

UK Map Scotland Wales England


The image map was produced by the following code. Two rectangles - for Scotland and Wales - and a circle -for Wales.
Then the coordinates were specified for each region on the following basis:
"top,left"  and "bottom,right"  for a rectangle; "centre,radius"  is for a circle.
Please note that the values are approximate, due to irregular nature of the borders.

<img src="imagemaps.gif" width="300" height="450" alt="Great Britain" usemap="#britishmap" />
<map name="britishmap">
<area shape="rect" coords="60,0,110,110" href="" />
<shape="circle" coords="75,130,20" href="" />
<shape="rect" coords="50,170,160,280" href="" />




Resources at Fingertips

There is a significant selection of tutorials here, covering ASP.Net, HTML5, CSS3 and JavaScript. They are categorized clearly for you to access them easily on any device - desktops/laptops, smartphones and laptops.
There are quite a few of them on HTML5 Canvas and CSS3. In addition, there are tutorials on JavaScript and ASP.Net too.


Stand Out - from the crowd


"There's no such thing as a free lunch."

The best things in nature are free with no strings attached - fresh air, breathtakingly warm sunshine, scene of meadow on the horizon...

Vivax Solutions, while mimicking nature, offers a huge set of tutorials along with interactive tools for free.

Please use them and excel in the sphere of science education.

Everything is free; not even registration is required.



Recommended Reading


The best book to master HTML5 canvas animations. The author tells you how to manipulate the canvas element with JavaScript in a progressive way - starting from the easier to harder worked examples. It is ideal for anyone who wants to be a game developer in HTML5.