Creating 2-D Animations on Canvas - simple pendulum

In this tutorial, you will learn:

  • How to draw a simple pendulum on HTML5 Canvas.
  • How to animate it using Window.setInterval function.
  • How to change the speed of oscillation.
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Interactive Simple Pendulum

The string of the pendulum is drawn as a straight line. Its bottom is changing while using a sine values of an angle so that it gets the oscillating effect.

The pendulum bob is created as a circle, filled with a gradient to give it the appearance of a sphere.

The speed is controlled by window.setInterval() method while passing on three different intervals as arguments.

The canvas is cleared up after each interval by context.clearRect() method to give the animated effect.

Choose Speed




Make sure you stop the animation before choosing the speed to see a smooth effect.

The Code for Interactive Pendulum:

<!--hidden element to store the values for animation--------------->
<input type="hidden" id="h" value="0" />
<canvas id="Canvas_One" width="400" height="300" style="border:2px solid red;" class="imgforcontent">
<!----radio buttons for speed control---------------------------->
<form name="pendulum" action="">
<input id="R1" name="speed" value="Slow" type="radio" />Slow<br /><br />
<input id="R2" name="speed" value="Medium" type="radio" />Medium<br /><br />
<input id="R3" name="speed" value="Fast" type="radio" />Fast<br /><br />
<!---------------buttons to start and stop the animation------------------------>
<div style="width:400px;">
<input type="button" style="float:left;margin-left:10px;" value="Run" onclick="anim()" id="Animation" />&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
<input type="button" style="float:right;margin-right:10px;" value="Stop" onclick="window.clearInterval(x)" id="Stopping" >
<script type="text/javascript">
var canvas = document.getElementById('Canvas_One');
var context = canvas.getContext('2d');
var i;
var x;
var sp;
//code for static string - grey colour
context.moveTo(200, 0);
context.lineTo(200, 135);
context.lineWidth = 5;
context.strokeStyle = "grey";
// code for the static ball - gradient blue
context.arc(200, 150, 20, 0, 2 * Math.PI, false);
var grd = context.createRadialGradient(200, 150, 2, 200, 150, 18);
// light blue
grd.addColorStop(0, '#8ED6FF');
// dark blue
grd.addColorStop(1, '#0000ff');
context.fillStyle = grd;
// function for the animation
function circ() {
context.clearRect(0, 0, canvas.width, canvas.height);
i = eval(document.getElementById('h').value) + 10;
context.moveTo(200, 0); context.lineTo(200 + 40 * Math.sin(i * Math.PI / 180), 135);
context.lineWidth = 5;
context.strokeStyle = "grey";
context.arc(200 + 40 * Math.sin(i * Math.PI / 180), 150, 20, 0, 2 * Math.PI, false);
if (i == 360 || i > 360) { i = 0; }
document.getElementById('h').value = i;
//create radial gradient
var grd = context.createRadialGradient(200 + 40 * Math.sin(i * Math.PI / 180), 150, 2, 200 + 40 * Math.sin(i * Math.PI / 180), 150, 18);
// light blue
grd.addColorStop(0, '#8ED6FF');
// dark blue
grd.addColorStop(1, '#0000ff');
context.fillStyle = grd;
// function for timing
function anim() {
{ sp = 200; }
else if (document.getElementById('R2').checked) { sp = 100; }
else if (document.getElementById('R3').checked) { sp = 80; }
{ sp = 200; }
x = window.setInterval('circ()', sp);







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Recommended Reading


The best book to master HTML5 canvas animations. The author tells you how to manipulate the canvas element with JavaScript in a progressive way - starting from the easier to harder worked examples. It is ideal for anyone who wants to be a game developer in HTML5.